Fort Collins was also ranked 24 for high ozone days out of 228 metropolitan areas, 52 for 24-hour particle pollution out of 217 metropolitan areas, and156 for annual particle pollution out of 203 metropolitan areas. However since 2004 ozone pollution in Boulder County has regularly failed to meet federal standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency. Ozone is released naturally in the troposphere by plants and soil. These are such small amounts that they are not harmful to the health of humans, animals or the environment.  In 2018, the Lung Association ranked Larimer county 19th in the nation for high ozone days. Tropospheric ozone (O 3) is considered as the most significant phytotoxic pollutant in the atmosphere and is already responsible for widespread effects on crops, trees and native plant species.  Ozone is also an important constituent of the stratosphere, where the ozone layer exists which is located between 10 and 50 kilometers above the earths surface. Ozone can interfere with the process of photosynthesis and damage leaves hence plants cannot produce and store food.  Its levels have increased significantly since the industrial revolution, as NOx gasses & VOCs are some of the byproducts of combustion. Tropospheric ozone affects the climate beyond increased warming, having impacts on evaporation rates, cloud formation, precipitation levels, and atmospheric circulation. Tropospheric ozone is a short-lived climate pollutant with an atmospheric lifetime of hours to weeks.  A similar investigation to assess the joint effects of ozone and heat during the European heat waves in 2003, concluded that these appear to be additive. But when ozone is closer to the ground (the troposphere), it enters our respiratory system and can cause a variety of mild to severe health effects. Oz… , United States Environmental Protection Agency, "What is Stratospheric Ozone?- Defra, UK", "Ozone in the Troposphere | UCAR Center for Science Education", "Tropospheric ozone | Climate & Clean Air Coalition", "Education + training | University Corporation for Atmospheric Research", "Potential for photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere over the North Atlantic as derived from aircraft observations during ACSOE", "How is ozone measured in the atmosphere? ", "Simple Steps | Simple Steps.  NOAA has worked to create a global network of tropospheric ozone measurements using ozonesondes.. Ozone is not selectively destructive. Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere. Ground level or tropospheric ozone is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx gases) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This nine-county zone has recorded ozone levels that exceed the EPA’s ozone standard since 2004. Ozone is formed in the troposphere when sunlight causes complex photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOC) and carbon monoxide that originate chiefly from gasoline engines and burning of other fossil fuels.  With more heat and sunlight in the summer months, more ozone is formed which is why regions often experience higher levels of pollution in the summer months. There are many man-made sources of these organic compounds including vehicle and industrial emissions, along with several other sources. 6. There is ample evidence that current concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O 3) cause negative effects on plants. Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live. This page was last edited on 14 October 2020, at 17:07. Tropospheric Ozone causes approximately 22,000 premature deaths per year in 25 countries in the European Union. At abnormally high concentrations (the largest source being emissions from combustion of fossil fuels), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. It is currently estimated that tropospheric ozone adds 0.4 W.m-2 to the current enhanced climate forcing of 2.45 W.m-2. Increased tropospheric ozone.  A statistical study of 95 large urban communities in the United States found significant association between ozone levels and premature death. The U.S. EPA designated Fort Collins as part of the ozone non-attainment area in November 2007. Inflammation and damage to the lining of the lungs. The study estimated that a one-third reduction in urban ozone concentrations would save roughly 4000 lives per year (Bell et al., 2004). Ozone absorbs radiation and consequently acts as a strong greenhouse gas. 6.1 Health significance of exposure to ozone.  Motor vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, and chemical solvents are the major anthropogenic sources of these ozone precursors. In contrast, at lower levels, it is an important greenhouse gas and air pollutant, which is harmful to human and ecosystem health. The depletion of the ozone layer also leads to an increase in tropospheric ozone which in turn can lead to health issues. In the US, plants that are easily affected by ozone air pollution include black cherry, white pine, and red alder.  The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere. Environmental Effects Of Ozone Air Pollution. Methane, a VOC whose atmospheric concentration has increased tremendously during the last century, contributes to ozone formation but on a global scale rather than in local or regional photochemical smog episodes.
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